Brain surgery is a delicate procedure now, but back in the day, it was even more nerve-wracking. Doctors had to use tools and techniques that would be considered barbaric by today's standards. The movement toward using more modern methods in the 1920s eventually picked up steam, but it was a slow process, as this brain surgery training film from that era illustrates.
It's a little hard to follow, but here's a transcript of the video's text for your reference:
Drilling a pin-hole through scalp and skull, 4 cm. to right of middle line, well in front of Rolandic fissure. After penetrating the skull with the grooved drill, stilette and blunt, hollow needle are inserted along the track. On reaching cavity of Lateral Ventricle, cerebrospinal fluid appears. Cisternal or Sub-Occipital puncture. Needle inserted immediately above 2nd cervical spine, pencil in patient's ear to guide aim of needle. Lumbar Puncture Needle inserted between L4 and L5 laminae, just to right of middle line.
Watch it all unfold in the video below.
I have a headache just from watching that. This is yet another reason why I'm grateful to be alive in 2016.